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Antibody: An antibody , also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen, via the fragment antigen-binding (Fab) variable region.
Antibody-dependent enhancement: Antibody-dependent enhancement , sometimes less precisely called immune enhancement or disease enhancement, is a phenomenon in which binding of a virus to suboptimal antibodies enhances its entry into host cells, followed by its replication. Antiviral antibodies promote viral infection of target immune cells by exploiting the phagocytic FcγR or complement pathway.
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity , also referred to as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies. It is one of the mechanisms through which antibodies, as part of the humoral immune response, can act to limit and contain infection.ADCC is independent of the immune complement system that also lyses targets but does not require any other cell.
Antibody opsonization: Antibody opsonization is a process by which a pathogen is marked for destruction by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity , antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Given normal inflammatory circumstances, microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) bind with the endocytic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of phagocytes, which mediates neutrophil mediation or macrophage phagocytosis.
Antibody microarray: An antibody microarray is a specific form of protein microarray. In this technology, a collection of capture antibodies are spotted and fixed on a solid surface such as glass, plastic, membrane, or silicon chip, and the interaction between the antibody and its target antigen is detected.